ArchaeologyCGI 3D

Rome Reborn Project: 3D Simulation made by Indiana University



^B0B3AC17C50D371662EC4F969497C3CAB1C894EF7FF9E853C5^pimgpsh_thumbnail_win_distrBernard Frischer is a leading virtual archaeologist and the author of seven printed books, three e-books, and dozens of articles on virtual heritage, Classics, and the survival of the Classical world. He is the founding editor of Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage, an innovative online, peer-reviewed journal where scientists can publish interactive 3D models.

Frischer received his B.A. summa cum laude in Classics from Wesleyan University (CT) in 1971 and his Ph.D. summa cum laude in Classics from the University of Heidelberg in 1975. He held a post-doctoral fellowship in Roman archaeology at the American in Academy in Rome from 1974 to 1976. Afterwards, he taught Classics and Roman Topography at UCLA from 1976 to 2004. From 2004 to 2013 he was Professor of Art History and Classics at the University of Virginia, where he was also founding Director of the Virtual World Heritage Laboratory. The lab’s mission is to apply 3D digital tools to simulating cultural heritage artifacts and sites as heuristic instruments of discovery. Since 2013 he has been a Professor of Informatics in the School of Informatics at Indiana University, where he continues to direct the Virtual World Heritage Laboratory.

He has been a guest professor at the University of Pennsylvania (1993), the University of Bologna (1994), Beijing Normal University (2009) and held the post of Professor-in-Charge of the Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies in Rome (2000-01). Frischer is a member of Phi Beta Kappa, a Fellow of the Michigan Society of Fellows, a Fellow and trustee of the American Academy in Rome, and he has won research fellowships from the American Council of Learned Societies (1981, 1996), and the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts (1997). Over the course of his career, he has garnered over $6 million in research funding, including multiple grants from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the National Endowment for the Humanities, and the National Science Foundation.

From 1996 to 2003 he directed the excavations of Horace’s Villa sponsored by the American Academy in Rome, and from 1996 to 2004 he was founding director of the UCLA Cultural Virtual Reality Laboratory. The lab was one of the first in the world to use 3D computer modeling to reconstruct cultural heritage sites. Frischer has overseen many significant modeling projects, including Rome Reborn, the virtual recreation of the entire city of ancient Rome within the Aurelian Walls. Rome Reborn was the featured project at SIGGRAPH 2008, where it was prominently displayed at the entrance to the LA Convention Center. In recent years, he has focused on digitization and digital restoration of ancient sculpture, creation of a 3D restoration model of Hadrian’s Villa, and on using interactive models of historic monuments and the historically restored sky in archaeoastronomical research. His Virtual Meridian of Augustus Project is an example of the latter. Frischer not only develops scientific 3D models of cultural heritage, he also collaborates with The Khan Academy to use the models as assets in educational videos. With over 500,000 views since it was posted in 2012, the program he helped create on ancient Rome is by far Khan’s most popular arts and humanities video.

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In 2005 Bernard Frischer was given the Pioneer Award of the International Society on Virtual Systems and Multimedia. In 2009, he was the recipient of the Tartessus Lifetime Achievement Prize from the Spanish Society of Virtual Archaeology. In 2010-11 he held the Senior Prize Fellowship of the Zukunftskolleg at the University of Konstanz, where since 2012 he has served as a member of the Scientific Advisory Board.

Research interests

Digital Archaeology and Archaeoastronomy
Digitization and Digital Restoration of Ancient Sculpture
Roman Archaeology
Serious Games
Survival of The Classical Tradition
Urban Simulation
Virtual Heritage
Virtual Worlds


Department of Informatics, Indiana University, 901 E. 10th Street, Bloomington, IN, USA47408



E-mail: bernard.d.frischer[at]

Skype: bernard.frischer
Cell: +1-310-266-0183
Cell/Italy: +39-366-895-2609

Recent Research Projects and Collaborations

  • Creating A Total Environment For The Caligula In The Virginia Museum of Fine Arts
  • Digital Applications to Archaeology and Cultural Heritage
  • Digital Hadrian’s Villa
  • Khan Academy
  • Reconstructing Cities From Photographs
  • Rome Reborn

    Articles and Publications Available Online

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    • Frischer, B., 2013. “Introduction with Remarks on Digital Restoration of the Richmond Caligula and Its Methodological Implications,” in Papers of the NEH Symposium “Caligula 3D,” Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, Virginia, Dec. 4, 2011. View Document
    • Helling, H., Steinmetz, C., Solomon, E., and Frischer, B. 2011, “The Port Royal Project. A Case Study in the Use of VR Technology for the Recontextualization of Archaeological Artifacts and Building Remains in a Museum Setting,” presented at CAA2004, Prato, Italy, April 13-16, 2004; published in On the Road to Reconstructing the Past. Proceedings of CAA 2008 Budapest, edited by E. Jerem, F. Redo, V. Szevenenyi (Archaeolingua, Budapest). View Document
    • Dylla, Kimberly, Bernard Frischer et al., 2010. “Rome Reborn 2.0: A Case Study of Virtual City Reconstruction Using Procedural Modeling Techniques,” in CAA 2009. Making History Interactive. 37th Proceedings of the CAA Conference March 22-26, 2009, Williamsburg, Virginia (Archaeopress: Oxford) 62-66. View Document
    • Frischer, B., 2008. “From Digital Illustration to Digital Heuristics,” in Beyond Illustration: 2D and 3D Digital Technologies as Tools for Discovery in Archaeology, edited by Bernard Frischer and Anastasia Dakouri-Hild, BAR International Series 1805 (Oxford) v-xxiv. View Document
    • Gutierrez, D., B. Frischer, E. Cerezo, F. Seron. “AI and Virtual Crowds: Populating the Colosseum,” Journal of Cultural Heritage 8(2), 2007. View Document
    • Frischer, B. and P. Stinson, 2007. “The Importance of Scientific Authentication and a Formal Visual Language in Virtual Models of Archaeological Sites: The Case of the House of Augustus and Villa of the Mysteries,” in Interpreting The Past: Heritage, New Technologies and Local Development. Sponsored by Flemish Heritage Institute, Provincial Archaeological Museum Ename, Province of East Flanders, Ename Center for Public Archaeology and Heritage Presentation. Proceedings of the Conference on Authenticity, Intellectual Integrity and Sustainable Development of the Public Presentation of Archaeological and Historical Sites and Landscapes Ghent, East-Flanders 11-13 September 2002.View Document
    • Frischer, B., 2007.”The ‘Grand Compromise’: A Hybrid Approach to Solving the Problem of Looted Art,” paper presented at The 11th International Congress on ‘Cultural Heritage and New Technologies’ under the Patronage of UNESCO, Vienna, Austria, October 20, 2006. View Document
    • Frischer, B., Crawford, J. and De Simone, M., editors. The Horace’s Villa Project 1997-2003 (2006). Available through the ACLS Humanities E-Book Archive: View Document(requires subscription to the Humanities E-Book Project) .
    • Frischer, B., 2005. “New Directions for Cultural Virtual Reality: A Global Strategy for Archiving, Serving, and Exhibiting 3D Computer Models of Cultural Heritage Sites,” Proceedings of the Conference Virtual Retrospect 2005 (Bordeaux) 168-175. View Document
    • Guidi, G., B. Frischer, et al., 2005. “Virtualizing Ancient Rome: 3D Acquisition and Modeling of a Large Plaster-of-Paris Model of Imperial Rome,” Videometrics VIII, edited by J.-Angelo Beraldin, Sabry F. El-Hakim, Armin Gruen, James S. Walton, 18-20 January 2005, San Jose, California, USA, SPIE,  vol. 5665, 119-133. View Document
    • Frischer, B., 2005. “The Digital Roman Forum Project: Remediating the Traditions of Roman Topography, in Acts of the 2nd Italy-United States Workshop, Rome, Italy, November 3-5, 2003, Berkeley, USA, May, 2005 edited by M. Forte, BAR International Series 1379 (Oxford 2005) 9-21. View Document
    • Frischer, B., 2005. “The Ultimate Internet Cafe. Reflections of a Practicing Digital Humanist about Designing a Future for the Research Library in the Digital Age,” in Library as Place. Rethinking Roles, Rethinking Space, Council on Library and Information Resources  publication nr. 129 (Washington, DC) 41-55. Available online at:
    • Frischer, B., 2004. “Mission and Recent Projects of the UCLA Cultural Virtual Reality Laboratory,” in Proceedings of the Conference Virtual Retrospect 2003, Biarritz, France 6-7 November 2003, edited by R. Vergnieux and C. Delevoie, 65-76. View Document
    • Frischer, B. et al., 2003. “The Digital Roman Forum Project of the UCLA Cultural Virtual Reality Laboratory,” International Archives
      of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
      , vol. 34, part 5/W10, edited by A. Gruen, S. Murai, J. Niederost, F. Remondino. View Document
    • Frischer, B., 2003.  “Mission and Recent Projects of the UCLA Cultural Virtual Reality Laboratory,” Virtual Retrospect 2003, 65-74. View Document
    • Frischer, B. et al., 2002. “From CVR to CVRO. The Past, Present, and Future of Cultural Virtual Reality,” by B. Frischer, F. Niccolucci, N. Ryan, J. Barcel, Proceedings of VAST 2000, ed. F. Niccolucci, British Archaeological Reports 834 (ArcheoPress, Oxford) 7-18. View Document
    • Frischer, B., 2001. “Ramsay’s ‘Enquiry’: Text and Context,” in Allan Ramsay and the Search for Horace’s Villa, edited by B.D. Frischer and I.G. Brown (Ashgate, Aldershot) 73-107. View Document
    • Frischer, B. et al. 2000.”Virtual Reality and Ancient Rome: The UCLA Cultural VR Lab’s Santa Maria Maggiore Project,” by B. Frischer, D. Favro, P. Liverani, S. De Blaauw, D. Favro, D. Abernathy, Virtual Reality in Archaeology, British Archaeological Reports International Series
      S 843, ed. J. A. Barcelo, M. Forte, and D. H. Sanders (ArcheoPress, Oxford) 155-162. View Document
    • Frischer, B., Andersen, R.,  Burstein, S., Crawford, J.,  Gallucci, R.,  Gowing, A.,  Guthrie, D., Haslam, M., Holmes, D.,  Rudich, V., Sherk, R., Taylor, A.,  Tweedie, F.,  Vine, B., 1999. “Word-Order Transference between Latin and Greek: The Relative Position of the Accusative Direct Object and the Governing Verb in Cassius Dio and Other Greek and Roman Prose Authors,”View Document
    • Tweedie, F. J., Frischer, B., 1999. “The Analysis of Classical Greek and Latin Compositional Word-Order Data, The Journal of Quantitative Linguistics 6: 1-13. View Document
    • Frischer, B., 1998. “Notes on the First Excavation of Horace’s Villa near Licenza (Roma) by the Baron de Saint’Odile,” in Roma, Magistra Mundi. Itineraria culturae medievalis. Mélanges offerts au Père L. E. Boyle à l’occasion de son 75e anniversaire. Fédération Internationale des Instituts d’Études du Moyen Âge, ed. >J. Hamesse (Louvain L-Neuve) 265-289.View Document
    • Tse, E., Tweedie, F. J., Frischer, B., 1998. “Unravelling the Purple Thread: Function Word Variability and the Scriptores Historiae Augustae, Literary and Linguistic Computing13: 141-149. View Document
    • Frischer, B. “ Rezeptionsgeschichte  and Interpretation: The Quarrel of Antonio Riccoboni and Nicolò Cologno about the Structure of Horace’s Ars Poetica,” in Helmut Krasser and Ernst A. Schmit (editors), Zeitgenosse Horaz. Der Dichter und seine Leser seit zwei Jahrtausenden (Tübingen 1996) 68-116. View Document
    • Frischer, B., 1996. “How To Do Things With Words/Stop: Two Studies on the Historia Augusta and Cicero’s Orations,” Papers from the Seventh International Colloquium on Latin Linguistics, Jerusalem, April 19-23, 1993, in the Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft. ed. H. Rosén (Innsbruck) 585-599. View Document
    • Frischer, B.,  1995.”Horace and the End of Renaissance Humanism in Italy: Quarrels, Religious Correctness, Nationalism, and Academic Protectionism,” in Horace 2000 Years. Arethusa 28, 265-288. View Document
    • Frischer, B., 1991. Shifting Paradigms. New Approaches to Horace’s Ars Poetica, APA American Classical Studies, nr. 27 (Oxford University Press). View Document
    • Frischer, B., 1987. “Classics and Computing at UCLA and in the Profession,” Papers of the UCLA Conference on Classics and Computing, Los Angeles, July 19-20, 1986, edited by B. Frischer, Favonius Supplementary Volume 1:7-14. View Document
    • Frischer, B., 1984. “Horace and the Monuments: A New Interpretation of the Archytas Ode (c.1.28),” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 88: 71-102. View Document
    • Frischer, B., 1983a. “A Socio-Psychological and Semiotic Analysis of Epicurus’ Portrait,” Arethusa 16: 247-266. View Document
    • Frischer, B., 1983b. “Inceptive Quoque and the Introduction Medias in Res,” Glotta 61: 236-51. View Document
    • Frischer, B., 1982-83. “Monumenta et Arae Honoris Virtutisque Causa: Evidence of Memorials for Roman Civic Heroes,” Bullettino della Commissione Archeologica di Roma 88: 51-86 + 7 plates. View Document
    • Frischer, B., 1982. The Sculpted Word. Epicureanism and Philosophical Recruitment in Ancient Greece (Berkeley and Los Angeles; second edition published by the Humanities E-Book Project, 2006). View Second Edition (requires subscription to the Humanities E-Book Project)


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the authorRaffaele Schiavullo
ADMINISTRATOR - Senior 3D/Virtual Reality Specialist and Automotive HMI developer - Working in London and "insanely" passionate about technology and its creative applications


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